A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, & ART
The Netherlandshas several Archaeology Sites including several ancient Roman sites. The Pesse Canoe is believed to be the oldest known boat in the world. Carbon dating indicates that the boat found in Holland was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BCE and 7510 BCE. It is currently housed in the Drents Museum in Assen. Krijn is the common name of a Neanderthal fossil discovered off the Dutch coast. The discovery is most notable for being the first evidence of a Neanderthal presence in The Netherlands.
Dutch ART describes the history of visual arts in Holland, after the United Provinces separated from Flanders. Earlier painting in the area is covered in Early Netherlandish painting and Renaissance art. Art Museums are located throughout the Netherlands. One of the most famous is the Rembrandt House in Amsterdam.
The Netherlands has many BRIDGES and Bridge Keepers Houses. The Zeeland Bridge is the longest bridge in The Netherlands. Moses Bridge is an "invisible" bridge across the moat at Fort de Roovere. Python Bridgehas a red snake-like shape and spans the canal between Sporenburg and Borneo Island. The Slauerhofbrug is a fully automatic bascule bridge (aka tail bridge) in the city of Leeuwarden. It is also known as the “Slauerhoffbrug ‘Flying’ Drawbridge”
The Netherlands has all forms of COMMUNICATION including newspapers, magazine, radio, and television, and Internet Service Providers. Postal Codes in Holland are are formed of four digits then two letters (in capitals), separated by a space—1234 AB, for example. Webcams are located throughout Holland.
The Dutch Guilder was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the Euro. Between 1999 and 2002, the guilder was officially a "national subunit" of the euro. However, physical payments could only be made in guilder, as no euro coins or banknotes were available. The Netherlands Antillean Guilder is still in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten (two countries in the Kingdom of the Netherlands). In 2004, the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese Dollar. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in the world.
There is evidence that DINOSAURS roamed what is now The Netherlands. Part of a Betasuchus was found in The Netherlands. Highlights at the Maastricht Natural History Museum include Cretaceous fossils from Sint-Pietersberg, most notably the skull of a Mosasaur and specimens of Hoffmann's giant turtle, Allopleuron hofmanni and Suyckerbuyk's turtle.
EDUCATION in The Netherlands is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels. Schools are furthermore divided in public, special(religious), and general-special (neutral) schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 (very poor) to 10 (outstanding).
A variety of EVENTS are held throughout the year in The Netherlands including festivals and trade shows>/a>. There are markets throughout the country. De Bazaar in Beverwijk is a unique market and has a lot to offer. There are also parades and carnivals. The largest national event is celebrated every year on the monarch's birthday – King's Day.
The FLAG of The Netherlands is a horizontal tricolour of red, white, and blue. Variants of the flag have been in use since 1572, and in 1937 the flag was officially formalized as the national flag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is the oldest tricolor flag still in national use. Countries in the Kingdom of the Netherlands have their own flag.
The FOOD in The Netherlands is shaped by the practice of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for raising crops and the raising of domesticated animals, and the history of The Netherlands. Traditionally, the food is simple, with many vegetables and little meat; breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings while dinner is meat and potatoes, with seasonal vegetables. Each region has its own specialty. The Dutch have popular fast food restaurants and their own types of fast food, sold at a snackbar. Kibbeling,consisting of small chunks of battered white fish, has become a national fast food. The country has Food Festivals, Events, and Shows. There are also food and beverage trade shows
The Netherlands has had many FORTS. Fort Bourtange is a historical museum. Fort de Roovere has undergone a renovation. There are several forts along the Frisian Water Line. Some of the buildings at Fort De Kwakel have been converted into houses. Fort Muiden is used as offices and has a museum. Stelling van Amsterdam is a ring of 42 forts around Amsterdam and Fort along Den Ham is part of the UNESCO World Heritage site of the Stelling van Amsterdam. Fort Wierickerschans is in good condition and is unique in the world because of its design and historically important buildings.
The GLOBAL POSTION of The Netherlands is approximately 52 degrees latitude north and 5 degrees longitude east. The geographic center is northeast of Lunteren. The highest point in the in the country is Vaalserberg a hill with a height of 1,059 ft. The lowest point is Zuidplaspolder −23 ft. below sea level.. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning System and The Netherlands has many Geocaches.
The HISTORY of The Netherlands dates back to 5500 BC. The ancient Netherlands was inhabited by Celtic and German tribes. They were eventually ruled by the ancient Roman Empire, The Franks, and the Franks Empire of Charlemagne. After the fall of the Charlemagne Empire the Low Countries territory was divided into several smaller states. In the Middle Ages the Netherlands one of the richest areas in Europe. In 1555, Charles of the Habsburg dynasty granted the Netherlands to his son, Philip II, king of Spain. In 1581, the Union of Utrecht proclaimed independence from Spain. In 1648 the Spanish recognized the sovereignty of the Republic. Until 1794, The Dutch Republic remained under the power of the Austrian throne of Habsburg. Growth of the liberal and republican ideas all over the world and resistance to these ideas by the people who ruled the Dutch Republic, led at the end of the 18th century to the creation of The Kingdom of the Netherlands, which after the fall of Napoleon included also the territories of the today’s Belgium and Luxemburg. In the second half of the 19 century, the Netherlands became a liberal and modern state. Today It is one of the most developed and wealthiest countries in the world.
Holland has many Public Holidays but not all are national holidays. The most important holidays are Sinterklaas, Christmas, New Year's Eve, Easter and Queen's Day. Each holiday has its own traditions and accompanying foods.
The Netherlands has a variety of INSECTS including many butterflies and moths. Scientists in the country are experimenting with different insects that could replace animal meat as a source of protein.
The Netherlands has many, many ISLANDS. The largest island is Texel and includes 7 villages. The oldest traces of civilization on Terschelling Island date from around 850. Ameland Island has 4 villages and one small part-village. Schiermonnikoog Island is a municipality and a national park.
The JUDICIAL System in The Netherlands is divided into 11 districts, each with its own court. Each district court is made up of a maximum of five sectors, which always include the administrative law, civil law, criminal law and sub-district law sector.
The official national LANGUAGE of the Netherlands is Dutch, and spoken by almost all people in the Netherlands. Dutch is also spoken and official in Aruba, Belgium, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Suriname. It is a West Germanic, Low Franconian language that originated in the Early Middle Ages and was standardised in the 16th century. There are also some recognised provincial languages and regional dialects. The Netherlands also has its separate Dutch Sign Language called Nederlandse Gebarentaal and has 17,500 users. The country has a trend of learning foreign languages and many people are able to converse in English, German, French and Spanish.
LIBRARIES are located throughout The Netherlands including National, Regional, State and specialized. The National Library is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The Openbare Bibliotheek in Amsterdam is the largest public library system in the country.
The Netherlands has several MOUNTAINS and hills. Mount Vaalserberg is the tallest mountain in the European part of The Netherlands. It is also the point at which Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands all come together. A popular sport is mountain/hill/rock climbing.
The Netherlands has hundreds of MUSEUMS. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam is one of the most popular. The Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam has an extensive collection of van Gogh's work. The Mauritshuis in The Hague is a museum set in the 17th-century palace of a Dutch count and has a small of Golden Age art treasures. The Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen museum in Rotterdam features art forms covering a period of over 7 centuries.
The Netherlands has several OBSERVATORIES and 2 planetariums. In 2015, De Boschplaat was named an International Dark Sky Park. In 2016, The Lauwersmeer National Parkwas named a Dark Sky Park. The country has Astronomy Clubs & Organizations.
The Netherlands belongs to many International ORGANIZATIONS including the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Holland has been a member of the UNITED NATIONS since 1945 and has participated and provided troops for numerous United Nations Peacekeeping Operations around the world.
The Netherlands has a variety of REPTILES. Some species are endangered. HerptoFauna supports projects that promote animal welfare, especially groups belonging to the order of reptiles, amphibians and arthropods. There is a Reptile Zoo in VLISSINGEN.
The Netherlands has all forms of TRANSPORTATION. The country has one of the most advanced motorway networks in the world, with Variable Message Signs and electronic signalization across most of the network. Cycling is a popular means of transport and 27% of all trips are by bicycle - the highest of any country in the world.
There is evidence that at one time The Netherlands had active VOLCANOES. During the late Jurassic times the Zuidwal volcano was active and is now a submerged part of the Netherlands known as the Wadden Sea. Mount Scenery is a potentially active volcano in the Caribbean Netherlands. Its lava dome forms the summit of the Sabais land stratovolcano.
The WEATHER in The Netherlands is unpredictable. With its long North Sea coast, the country has a typically moderate marine climate.
The Netherlands has a variety of WILDLIFE. Large mammals, such as roe deer, red deer, foxes, and badgers, are mostly restricted to nature reserves. Some species, such as boars, beavers, fallow deer, mouflons, and muskrats, have been introduced locally or reintroduced. Some animals are endangered.