A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, & ART
ARCHAEOLOGY in Russia began in the Russian Empire in the 1850s and becomes Soviet archaeology in the early 20th century. The country has many archaeological sites including prehistoric sites. There have been several sensational archaeology finds. Government support of archaeological studies in Russia dates back to Peter the Great.
ART in Russia dates back to the Stone Age. The country has produced many painters, illustrators, and sculptors. A characteristic type of Russian Christian Art, the Icon, was originally derived from Byzantine mosaics, frescoes and miniatures. Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots were established in the Eastern Slavic state of Kievan Rus'. Tent-like roof construction is thought to have originated in northern Russia since it prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. Russian Orthodox churches are distinguished by their vertically, bright colors, and multiple domes.
Russia has hundreds of species of BIRDS including many native birds. The Russian Coat of Arms consists of a two-headed eagle which represents authority and sovereign power. The Volga Delta is one of the world’s most important nesting grounds for water birds. Great cormorants build large colonies in willow trees along the riverbanks. Several birds build nests in the same colonies including the Great White Heron, the Black-Crowned Might Heron, the Eurasian spoonbill, and pond herons. The Siberian Grouse is mainly found in the eastern part of Russia. Bird watching is popular and there are many Birding Hotspots.
Russia has many BRIDGES including road bridges and railway bridges and cable stayed bridgesand suspension bridges. The Russky Bridge is the longest cabled-stayed bridge in the world. The Anichkov Bridge is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg. The current bridge, built in 1841-42 and reconstructed in 1906-08, combines a simple form with some spectacular decorations as well as its 4 famous horse sculptures, the bridge has some of the most celebrated ornate iron railings in Saint Petersburg. The Kuandinsky Bridge features no railing or other safety features and is probably one of the most dangerous vehicle bridges in the world.
Russia has all forms of COMMUNICATION and was among the first countries to introduce radio and television. Telephone numbers are under a unified numbering plan with Kazakhstan, both of which share the international code +7. There are several Internet Service Providers. Webcams are located throughout the country.
The Russian Ruble is the oldest national CURRENCY after the Pound sterling and its history dates back to the 13th century. Currently it is the currency of Russia and the 2 partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It is also used in the unrecognised quasi-states of the Donetsk People’s Republic and the Luhansk People’s Republic. The Russian ruble is the world's first decimal currency, being decimalised in 1704 when the ruble became legally equal to 100 kopeks.
Before and during the Mesozoic Era, the Russian landscape was dominated by a variety Dinosaurs including Therapsids during the late Permian period and Hadrosaurs during the late Cretaceous. In 2008 fossils were dug up and scientists decided that it was a Titanosauriformes dinosaur. Paleontologists from Siberia have collected the skeleton of a giant Titanosaur. Many Dinosaur Eggs, dating back more than 60 million years, are thought to have been found by geologists in Russia’s Chechyna region.
EDUCATION in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free and is rated 8th best in Europe and 13th best in the world Education in Russia is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. If a pupil of wishes to go on in higher education, they must remain to complete secondary school for 2 more years, from ages 15-17. Private schools are relatively uncommon in Russia and usually charge tuition fees and homeschooling has become popular.
The FLAG is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields. Federal Subjects of Russia each have their own flag. The current Coat of Arms of Russia is directly derived from its medieval original. The Coat of Arms of Moscow is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.
FOOD in Russia dates back to the 10th century. From early times in Russia they made Soup, noodles, and brown rye bread. By the 9th century, the most common food was turnip , cabbage, peas, and cucumbers. Potatoes did not appear until the 18th century and tomatoes the 19th century. When St. Petersburg became the capital, food was influenced by western European food. The food in Russia is varied due to the vast and multi-cultural expanse of the country. Each region has special dishes. Porridge has always been a traditional national dish. Pirozhki are small stuffed buns filled with one of many different fillings. Tea is the most common drink in almost all parts of Russia. Russia has FOOD Festivals, Events, and Shows.
Russia has had many FORTS. The Annendrone Fort is located outside the town on the island of Tverdysh. Boat tours are available to Fort Alexander. The Ivanorod Fortress serves as a museum. Lyubsha is an archaeological site of the earliest Varangian fort in Russia established in the first half of the 8th century. Peter and Paul Fortress has been adapted as the central and most important part of the State Museum of Saint Peterburg History. The Russian Fort Elizabeth on the island of Kaua’I is the last remaining Russian fort on the Hawaiian Islands.
Russia has has nearly 20,000 GHOST TOWNS, places once built to serve strategically important locations or rich mineral deposits whose significance was later downgraded to unnecessary. There is almost no information about “dead” settlements like Korzunovo where Yuri Gagarin, the world's first cosmonaut, served for three years at the military air-base located nearby. After the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, hundreds of settlements were evacuated. Some have remained abandoned ever since including Kopachi and Pripyat. A Soviet Ghost Town in the Arctic Circle, Pyramiden, looks much as it did when it was abandoned in 1998 providing visitors with a glimpse into Soviet-era life and culture. There is a haunted ghost tour in Moscow. St. Petersburg claims to have several haunted places. The Moscow Kremlin is said to be haunted by the Soviet leaders Lenin and Stalin.
The GLOBAL POSITION of Russia is approximately 60 degrees latitude north and 90 degrees longitude. The geographic center is Lake Vivi. The highest point is Mt. Elbrusand the lowest point is the Caspian Sea. Russia shares borders with more countries than any other country in the world. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and the country has many Geocaches.
The HISTORY of Russia dates back to prehistoric times. Current history began when the East Slavic state, Kievan Rus emerged in the 9th under the reign of the Rurik Dynasty which ruled until 1610. "Time of Troubles" refers to a period between the 2 dynasties. The House of Romanov ruled from 1613 until the Revolution of 1917 and the abdication of the Tsar which ended the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks came to power and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). After the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became an independent state of the Soviet Union. Following WW II the postwar division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves, led to increased tensions with the West and the Cold War emerged by 1947. The Cold War ended in 1989 and Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments. The Russian Federation(Russia) began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. New leaders took political and economic power after 2000.
Russia has several Public HOLIDAYS. It also has many holidays that are not public holidays. There are military honor days and commemorative days. New Year's Day is one of the most favorite holidays in Russia and Victory Day is one of the most sacred holidays for the Russian people.
Russia has many, many ISLANDS. The largest island is Sakhalin. The Russian Arctic islands are a number of islands groups and sole islands scattered around the Arctic Ocean. The largest is Severny Island - the 4th largest island in Europe. The Nordenskiold Archipelago is a very large and complex cluster of about 90 islands in the eastern region of the Kara Sea. The New Siberian Islands are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia to the East Siberian Coast.
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.. It is defined under the Constitution and law with a hierarchical structure with the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Arbitration at the apex. District courts handle most civil, criminal and administrative cases. Commercial Courts administer justice in the sphere of entrepreneurial and other economic activities.
Many aspects of life in Russia focus on KIDS and there are many attractions for kids. A Day in life kids would enjoy. The first Russian Nested Doll Set was made in 1890. The dolls were presented at the Exposition Universelle in 1900 in Paris, where the toy earned a bronze medal.
Of all the LANGUAGES in Russia, Russian is the only official language at the national level. There are 35 different languages which are considered official languages in various regions of the county, along with Russian. There are over 100 minority languages spoken in the country. Some are considered to be near extinction and put on the list of endangered languages and some languages may survive even with few speakers.
LIBRARIES are located throughout Russia. The Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library in St. Petersburg is one of national libraries in the country. The American Center in Moscow is a library and cultural center located in the Library of Foreign Literature. Ulyanovsk is a UNESCO City of Literature
Russia has a number of LIGHTHOUSES. The Storozhenskiy Lighthouse is among the tallest in the world. Kabotazhnaya Gavan Rear Light serves as rear light in a range of leading lights for the Kronstadt naval station. At one time there were polar nuclear lighthouses. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Russia has several MOUNTAIN ranges. Mount Elbrus is the tallest mountain. The Ural Mountains run approximately from north to south through western Russia from the coast of the Arctic Ocean and forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Mountain climbing is a popular activity.
Russia has a variety of many MUSEUMS including Religious museums and history museums. The Tchaikovsky House Museum was the country home in Klin northwest of Moscow where Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky lived from May 1892 until his death in 1893.
Russia has several OBSERVATORIES and planetariums. The Ratan 600 is the largest radio telescope in the world. The country has many Astronomy Clubs. In 2013, a meteorite hit the Russian Rurals region. In 1947, an iron meteorite fell on the Sikhote-Alin Mountains in southeastern Russia.
Over 146 million PEOPLE live in Russia. The country is a multi-national state with over 185 ethnic groups designated as nationalities. Many famous people have called the country their home. Russia has had many rulers, leaders, and presidents.
Russia has many RIVERS. Notable rivers include the Volga, the Don, the Kama, the Oka, and the Northern Dvina. The Volga is the longest river in Europe. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. It flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is widely viewed as the National River of Russia.
TRANSPORTATION in Russia is one of the most extensive in the world and has highways and railways. It also has rapid transit systems and waterways. The country has many roads that are considered dangerous.The Trans-Siberian Highway spans the width of the country. There are 7 monuments along the Road of Life, 46 memorial poles along the road, and 56 memorial poles along the railway. All of these are part of the Green Belt of Glory a war memorial surrounding St. Petersburg.
Russia has many UNIVERSITIES and other higher educational institutions. It is disputed whether St. Petersburg State University or Moscow State University is the oldest higher education institution in the country.
Russia has many VOLCANOES. Russia’s Far East region is full of volcanoes including some of the largest in Eurasia and some form Russia’s link in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The volcanoes of Kamchatka are UNESCO sites. Mount Elbrus has two summits, both of which are dormant volcanic domes. The Kambalny Volcanoe erupted in March 2017 for the first time in over 200 years.
Russia has a variety of WEATHER. Most areas in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia, and in the south of the Russian Far East experience humid weather. Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia have a subarctic climate with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia where the Northern Pole is located. About 65% of the Russian territory is underlined by permafrost. The first The first tornado since 1954 hit Russia's Novosibirsk region in July 2016. It was Novosibirsk's first tornado in more than 60 years, but the third in Siberia in two weeks.
Riussia has a variety of Wildlife and some species are endangered. The country has several dangerous animals. The Brown Bear is the national animal of Russia. The country has many Nature Reserve. The Great Arctic State Nature Reserve is one of the largest wildernesses in the world.
Russia has many ZOOS and Aquariums. The Moscow Zoo is the largest zoo in the country and has about 5,000 species. Planet Neptune in St. Petersburg is the deepest aquarium in Russia and includes more then 1200 species of reef swelling fish and crustaceans.