A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE, & ART
Scotland has many ARCHAEOLOGY sites. The Ness of Brodgar dates to around 3300 BC and excavations began in 2003. In 2011, the remains of a Viking Chief buried with his boat, sword, and spear were discovered. In 2014 at an ancient archaeological site, the bones of an enormous cow were discovered. There are 10 archaeology sites in the Scotland forests. An archaeological site next to the village of Dunning includes evidence of what is believed to be the earliest evidence of farming activity in Scotland dating back 10,000 years. There is also evidence of the remains of hunter-gathering activity dating back thousands of years before farming began. The North of Scotland Archaeological Society has several projects. Archaeology Scotland coordinates the Scottish Archaeology Month in September with many events. The National Trust for Scotland is involved in almost every aspect of archaeology in the country and helps others care for Scotland's historic environment. The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland helps preserve monuments and ancient landscapes in the country.
The ARCHITECTURE of Scotland includes buildings from the Neolithic era to the present day. The earliest surviving houses date back around 9500 years and the first villages 6000 years. Skara Brae on the Mainland of Orkney is the earliest preserved example in Europe. The peoples of early Iron Age lived in buildings called Atlantic Roundhouses and the remains of hundreds of these houses date from about 800 BC to AD 300. Recent major public buildings include the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Center, in Glasgow, and the many buildings along the side of the River Clyde, including the Glasgow Science Centre, and Glasgow Tower, the tallest tower in Scotland. The most important building of the early twentieth century is the Scottish Parliament Building in Edinburgh that opened in 2004. There have been increasing attempts to preserve much of what survives from Scotland's architectural heritage, including the great buildings and monuments.
The earliest examples of ART in Scotland date back to the Neolithic period. The country has many collections of art including the National Gallery of Scotland, the National Museum of Scotland, the Burrell Collection, and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. Schools of art include the Edinburgh College of Art and the Glasgow School of Art. Creative Scotland. is the development body for the arts and creative industries in the country. The Scottish Arts Council promotes artist in the country. The School of Art was founded in 1845. Scotland has several Art Festivals.
Scotland has over 500 species of BIRDS including several that are threatened. There are several species of Grouse. Capercaillie is the largest and rarest grouse in the country. The Red Grouse is the most common grouse. The Black Grouse is the most common woodland grouse species. The Scotland's Bird Club maintains the Scottish List of all species and subspecies of wild birds recorded in the country. Bird watching is popular and there are many "birding" Hotspots. The rare Golden Eagle can be found in Scotland and there is a campaign to see it designated the National Bird. The network of recording birds in Scotland was established in 1968. Bird life at the Machrihanish Bird Observatory is abundant and over 200 species have been seen.
Scotland has many BRIDGES Scotland has many BRIDGES including Pedestrian Bridges and Swing Bridges and Railway Bridges. There are also Navigable Aqueducts. The Abolition of Bridge Tolls in 2008 abolished Toll Bridges. The Firth of Forth was historically crossed by ferry until the opening of the Forth Bridge in 1890 which holds the record as the longest cantilever bridgein the world. The Craigellachie Bridge opened in 1815 and is the oldest surviving cast iron bridge in Scotland. In 1995 Skye Bridge replaced a ferry route which had been serving the Isle of Skye since the 1600s. The Leamington Lift Bridge was restored in 2002. To protect against any potential seismic activity of the Great Glen Fault, the Kessock_Bridge has seismic buffers. The Falkirk Wheel is a rotating boat lift in Scotland connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal.
There have been well over 2,000 CASTLES in Scotland. The earliest castle, Delgatie dates from around 1030. Cubbie Row's Castle, built in 1145, was one of the earliest stone castles in Scotland. Duffus CastleMotte and bailey castles were replaced with the first stone-built castles from around 1200. Edinburgh Castle, built in the 12 century, is the most important royal fortress in Scotland and houses the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish National War Memorial, and the Stone of Destiny. The Drum Castle is an intact 13th century square tower, a Jacobean mansion, and one of the oldest tower houses in the country. By the late 14th century curtain-walled castles had begun to give way to tower houses. The Orchardton Tower is a well preserved 15th century building and the only cylindrical tower house in Scotland. Dunvegan Castle is the oldest continuously inhabited castle in Scotlandand has been the stronghold of the MacLeod clan for 800 years. Stirling Castle, dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, is one of the largest and most important castles in the country. Crathes Castle is an intact and well preserved 16th century castle. Eilean Donan Castle, sited on an island, was authentically reconstructed to its medieval state in the mid 1900s. Balmoral Castle is the Scottish residence of the British Royal Family.
Scotland has many CATHEDRALS. The lower half of the Dunblane Cathedral is pre-romanesque from the 11th century. Construction began on St. Magnus Cathedral in 1137 and was added to over the next 300 years. Brechlin Cathedral dates from the 13th century. The present St. Giles Cathedral dates from the late 17th century. Inverness Cathedral is the northernmost cathedral in mainland Britain. Rosslyn_Chapel has intricate carvings inside and out.
Scotland has all forms of COMMUNICATION including newspapers and magazines. A magazine called The Dandy, first published on 3 December 1937, is currently the longest running comic in the world. The Scots Magazine, first published in January 1739, is the oldest magazine in the world still in publication, although there have been several gaps in its publication history. The country has many radio stations and television stations. Scotland has several telephone codes both for international and within the country. Area Codes. There are several Internet Service Providers. There are Webcams throughout the country. The Postal Codes cover many areas and the country has several dozen Philatic Societies. The Museum of Communications, Scotland highlights communications technology and artefacts including early electronic devices and more.
The official CURRENCY in Scotland is the same as in the whole of the U.K.: the British pound sterling consisting of 100 pence. Scotland also issues their own Banknotes. These are legal tender but are generally not accepted in England. U.S. dollars are not accepted in Scotland except by some tourist attractions. The Ulster Bank in Northern Ireland, and the Bank of Wales are part of the Royal Bank of Scotland.
There is evidence that DINOSAURS roamed what is now Scotland. The Isle of Skye is the dinosaur capital of Scotland. Hundreds of fossils have been discovered on the Misty Isle. The first evidence of dinosaurs found in the country occurred in 1982 with the discovery on Skye of a 47cm-long footprint believed to have been made by a plant-eating, Iguanodon-like ornithopod. Fossilized parts of bones from sauropods, theropods and an armoured thyreophoran have since been found on the island. Fossilized dinausaur footprints have been found at Staffin and Duntlum. In 2015 new fossilized trackways showed that giant Jurassic dinosaurs roamed ancient lagoons in Scotland. In 2017 the fossils of an obscure cat-sized creature was found in the country.
Scotland has many scenic DRIVES. The A9, also known as the "spine of Scotland", is the longest road in the country. A trip from Glenelg to Skye via the MV Glenachulish, the last manually operated turntable ferry in world, offers some spectacular views. The drive from Ullapool to Durness is considered the wildest and most scenic drive in the country. The drive from Edinburgh to St Andrews goes across Forth Road Bridge.
The Scotland Act gives the Scottish Parliament legislative control over all education matters, and the Education Act 1980 is the principal legislation governing education in Scotland. Government funded schools are free for children aged 5–19. Children start primary school aged between 4˝ and 5˝.Pupils remain at primary school for seven years. At aged eleven or twelve, they start secondary school for a compulsory four years. State schools are owned and operated by the local authorities. There are also private school and Home Schooling has become popular.
Annual EVENTS are held throughout the year. Glasgow Film Festival is a new festival. The Beltane Fire Festival celebrates the arrival of summer. Up Helly Aa is a variety of fire festivals held annually in the Shetland Islands in the middle of winter to mark the end of the yule season. Pancake Day/Shrove Tuesday is a unique event in Scotland. Theaters are located throughout the country. The National Theatre of Scotland is a theater without walls and presents a variety of work. An International Comedy Festival is held in Glasgow. The Edinburgh Festival is the largest cultural event in the world. The Glasgow Art Fair is the oldest of similar holidays and dates to the 12th century.
The FLAG of Scotland, also known as St. Andrew's Cross or the Saltire, is the national flag. As the national flag, the Saltire, rather than the Royal Standard of Scotland is the correct flag to fly. In 1999, the Royal Mail issued a series of pictorial stamps for Scotland, with the '2nd' value stamp depicting the Flag of Scotland. Several flags outside of the United Kingdom are based on the Scottish saltire including Nova Scotia Canada, Scottish AustraliansAustralia, Sint Oedenrode the Netherlands, and the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The National Emblem is the Thistle. The Highland Dress is the national dress and no outfit is more recognizable than the kilt. The Thistle has been the national emblem of the Scots nation since the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286) and was used on silver coins issued by James III in 1470. Today, it forms part of the emblem of the Scottish Rugby Union.
FOOD in Scotland has distinctive attributes and recipes but shares much as a result of foreign influences, both ancient and modern. Before the introduction of the potato, the main source of carbohydrate was bread made from oats or barley. During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era, French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery. During the 19th and 20th centuries there was large-scale immigration from Italy and they introduced Italian cuisine. Later Middle Eastern cuisine, and Indian cuisine, and Pakistani cuisine influenced Scots cooking. In the early years of the 21st century Eastern European cuisine has been introduced. A number of speciality restaurants and delicatessens catering to the immigrants have opened in the larger towns and cities. Fish and chip shops remain popular, and the battered and fried Haggis supper remains a favourite. These have been joined by outlets selling pizzas, kebabs, pakoras, and other convenience foodstuffs. An exampleof this style of food is the Munchy box. In the 1960s American-style burger bars and other restaurants such as Wimpy were introduced, and in the 1980s, McDonald's, Burger King, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken appeared in Scotland.
Scotland has many Forests and Woodlands. The Scots pines in the Caledonian Forest arrived about 7,000 BC. The Galloway Forest Park has 3 visitor centers. The National Outdoor Training Center for Scotland, Glenmore Lodge, is in Glenmore Forest Park. The Glentress Forest is the home of a mountain biking center and has 5 mountain bike routes that are Waymarked and considered to be among the best in the world. Jedforest is home to the widespreading Capon tree known as "King of the Woods" and thought to be over 2,000 years old. Kirkhill Forest has walking paths, an orienteering trail, and a mountain bike fun park.
Scotland has many FORTS including Promontory Forts and Vitrified Forts. There were also Hillforts, earthworks built on higher ground, and introduced into Scotland during the Bronze Age from around 1000 BCE. Some hillforts were reoccupied and petty kingdoms were often ruled from them. The arrival of the Romans from about 71 AD led to the creation of continuous fortification including the Antonine Wall between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Fort George Highland is a large 18th-century fortress north-east of Inverness. The current fortress has never been attacked and has remained in continuous use as a garrison. It is open to visitors with exhibits and facsimiles showing the fort's use at different periods, while still serving as army barracks.
Scotland has haunted locations. The Rosslyn Chapel has long be rumored to be home to a number of spirits. Of the many spirits said to haunt Stirling Castle, the most frequently reported is referred to as “The Highland Ghost”. Dryburgh Abbey Hotel has been the site of much unexplained activity and countless paranormal sightings. The Delgatie Castle is said to be haunted. There are several Ghost Hunts throughout the year.
The GLOBAL POSITION of Scotland is approximately 56 degrees latitude north and 4 degrees longitude west. There is some debate as to the location of the geographical centre of Scotland due to whether surrounding islands are included. The center point including islands is on a hillside near Loch Garry. The center of Mainland Scotland is 5 km east of the mountain of Schiehallion The highest point is Ben Nevis and the lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean. Scotland occupies the northern third of the British island. The Topography is divided into 3 parts. The Highlands is the most rugged region. The Lowlands include most of the cultivated farm land in the country. The Southern Uplands consists largely of a moorland plateau traversed by rolling hills and broken by mountain outcroppings. The coastline of Scotland is very irregular. The western coastline is deeply penetrated by numerous arms of the sea.
The HISTORY of Scotland dates back to 6,000 BC when Stone Age hunters arrived. The country has been invaded by the Romans who built many forts and 2 walls, the Picts who took part in a raid upon Roman Britain, the Scots who formed the kingdom of Dalriada, the Angles who invaded northeast England, the English who ruled the southeast of Scotland, and the Vikings who settled on islands and the western coast. The history of Kings in Scotland dates back to 843.
Scotland has many HOLIDAYS. Bank Holidaysand Public Holidays.are determined under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971 and the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007. Many large shops and supermarkets continue to operate normally during public holidays,
Scotland has a variety of INSECTS including many butterflies . There are also Midges and horseflies. The Edinburgh Butterfly and Insect World is an exotic indoor rain forest and has hundreds of the most colorful butterflies in the world. The Butterfly Conservation is one of the largest insect conservation organizations in the world and manages over 30 nature reserves. Scotland has a variety of bees Bees including Honey bees and Bumble bees. It is also home to Solitary bees. The Scottish Beekeepers Association founded in 1912, represents, educates, assists, and informs over 1,500 beekeepers in the country.
Scotland has many ISLANDS including over 790 offshore islands - land that is surrounded by seawater on a daily basis, but not necessarily at all stages of the tide, excluding human devices such as bridges and causeways". There are clusters of islands in the Firth of Clyde, the Firth of Forth, and the Solway Firth. There are also numerous small islands within the many bodies of fresh water including Loch Lomond and Loch Maree. Many of these islands are swept by strong tides, and the Gulf of Corryreckan has the third largest whirlpool in the world. The largest Island in Scotland is Lewis and Harris.
The Scotland JUDICIAL system includes office holders who sit in the courts and make decisions in both civil and criminal cases. The Lord President of the Court of Session and the presiding judge of the College of Justice. The second most senior judge is the Lord Justice Clerk and the other judges are called Senators. The Sheriffs deal with most civil and criminal cases. There are 6 sheriffdoms, each administered by a sheriff principal. The Scottish Government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend cabinet meetings, and ministers, who do not. It is led by the First Minister, who selects the cabinet secretaries and ministers with approval of parliament.
Scotland has JUMBLE Sales where second hand goods are sold. There is a Boat Jumble Association. A rummage sale by a church is called a church sale or white elephant sale. The nearest thing to a garage sale is called a car boot (car trunk) sale where people get together at one place and sell from the boot (trunk) of their car.
There are many places to visit in Scotland with KIDS. Children in Scotland is the collective voice for children, young people, and families in Scotland. There are special Scotland Crafts and Activities for Kids. The Kid's Kitchen has parties and classes. Police Scotland has a Road Safety Campaign for kids. The National Trust for Scotland has a kids page. The British Broadcasting Company has a webpage for kids. The Glasgow Science Center has programs for kids.
KILOMETERS is a metric unit that measures distance. The metric system is the official system of measurement in the Scotland except road distance signs and speeds are in miles. Scotland also uses the imperial system of measurement. The UK Metric Association supports the use of the metric system in the UK. The British Standard Institute has proposed a new scheme that would insure common clothes sizing.
Each of the numerous LANGUAGES spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history fall into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. The classification of the Pictish language was once controversial, but it is now generally considered a Celtic language. Today, the main language spoken in Scotland is English, while Scots and Scottish Gaelic are minority languages. The Isle of Skye is home to the largest number of Gaelic Speakers in Scotland. The dialect of English spoken in Scotland is referred to as Scottish English..
LIBRARIES are located throughout Scotland including Public Libraries, Specialized Libraries, and Academic Libraries. The main base of the National Library is in Edinburgh. It holds million of items including copies of the Gutenberg Bible. The Library also holds many ancient family manuscripts including those of the Clan Sinclair, which date back as far as 1488. Literature in Scotland began in the 6th century and the oldest public library was founded in Kirkwall in 1683. The first Carnegie Library was established in Scotland. Edinburgh has an International Book Festival. Scotland has had many writers, including Sir Walter Scott and Robert Lewis Stevenson. The National Poet is Robert Burns. The Ullapool Book Festival is a 3 day literary gathering in a town on the shores of Loch Broom. Edinburgh is called a “World City of Literature” by UNESCO. Some of the scenes for the Harry Potter movie were filmed in Scotland. The legend of the Loch Ness Monster is famous around the world. Edinburgh is a City of Literature.
Scotland has many LIGHTHOUSES. In 1787, the 16th-century Kinnaird Castle was converted for use as Kinnaird Head Lighthouse. The current light is the second to be built on the headland and the original now forms part of the Museum of Scottish Lighthouses. In 1998, the last lightkeeper left Fair Isle the only manned lighthouse left in Scotland. Bell Rock Lighthouse is the oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse in the world. The Esha ess Lighthouse is on the west coast of the Shetland Islands. The light was automated in 1974 and the former lighthouse keepers' accommodation now serves as holiday accommodation. The Northern Lighthouse Board provides information about lighthouses in Scotland and the Isle of Man. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Scotland has many MOUNTAINS and is the most mountainous country in the UK. The the Highland Boundary Fault is known as the Scottish Highlands and has the main mountain ranges in the country. Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in the UK. The Hills of the Central Lowland consists of a rift valley between the Highland Boundary Fault to the north and the Southern Uplands Fault to the south. The Southern Uplands includes Britain's highest peaks with several similar peaks in the Cairngorms.
Scotland has many
a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_Scotland">National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh highlights many facets of the history, culture, natural history of the country. The
Aberdeen Maritime Museum tells the story of the city's long relationship with the North Sea.
Provost Skene's House features period rooms from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, religious paintings, and costumes. The
Scottish Fisheries Museum in Fife records the Scottish fishing industry and its people from earliest times to the present. The
National Piping Center in Glasgow is dedicated to the playing of bagpipes and other instruments. The
Treasures of the Earth Museum in Corpach has a collection of crystals, gemstones, and fossils. The 17th-century
Scotland has several observatories and planetariums. The Dark Sky Observatory is an educational observatory and has a mobile planetarium. The country has Dark Sky Parks and Dark Sky Discovery Spots. In 2013, Coll received 'dark skies' status. Moffat is a Dark Sky Community. Galloway Forest Park is a Dark Sky Park. The Royal Observatory comprises the UK Astronomy Technology Center and the University of Edinburgh's Institute for Astronomy. The Coats Observatory has a public telescope viewing. The Mills Observatory was the first purpose-built public observatory in Britain. The Isle of May Bird Observatory was founded in 1934 and is the oldest bird observatory in Scotland. The Fair Isle Bird Observatory was built in 2010 and offers accommodations for visitors from April to October. Scotland has many Astronomy Groups and Societies.
POPULATION of over 5 million people. Around 70% live in the Central Lowlands. The Highlands and the island group of Eilean Siar have the lowest population . Many Notable People have come from Scotland. Inventors include Charles MacIntosh invented waterproof material; invented penicillin; John McAdam invented the process of macadam for building roads with smooth hard surface; William Murcoch invented gas lighting; John Boyd Dunlap, re-invented the pneumatic tire; and Sir David Brewster invented the kaleidoscope.
Scotland has many PORTS and harbors. The first recorded reference to Aberdeen Harbor was in AD 1136. The deep water of the Port of Dundee make it a natural haven for craft of all sizes and has become a regular stopping off point for cruise ships. The port at Cromarty Firth is easily accessible under all weather conditions and offers an uncluttered passage to large vessels with the entrance well marked by two prominent headlands. Hound Point is where North Sea oil starts its journey to refineries round the world. Hunterston Terminal is a coal-handling port. The Orkney Islands Council Marine Services range from the Oil Port of Scapa Flor to the harbors of Kirkwall and Stromness that receive many cruise ships making Orkney the most popular cruise ship destination in the UK. Peterhead Port serves a broad range of industries including oil and gas, renewables, fishing, and leisure. Scotland also has several marinas.
To QUEUE in Scotland means to stand in line, and the lines are called queues.
QUILTING is popular in Scotland and there are many Quilting Groups and Patchwork & Quilt Shows. Knitting is popular and Fair Isle Knitting is a traditional Scottish craft. Weaving is popular and there are many Scottish Weavers. The Harris Tweed is a special type of wool produced in the outer Hebrides.
Scotland has 3 species of native REPTILES including 2 species of lizards, Slow Worms and Common Lizards. There are 4 species of sea turtle, the leatherback, the loggerhead,, the Kemp's Ridley, and The Green Turtle. The Adder is the only venomous reptile. Scottish waters have around 2,500 species of Crustaceans and 700 Molluscs. In 2012 a bed of 100 million Flame Shells was found during a survey of Loch Alsh. Scotland has 6 native . Two European Protected Species are the Great Crested Newt and the Natterjack Toad.All reptiles in Scotland are protected. Scottish Natural Heritage works with several other organisations including the National Amphibianand Reptile Recording Scheme to deliver this protection. Scotland has 6 native Amphibians . The Skye Serpentarium on the Isle of Sky is an exhibition and educational center featuring reptiles and amphibians.
Scotland has many RIVERS and several words for waterways. A "Water" is a smaller river and a "burn" is used for smaller rivers and larger streams. The River Tay is the longest river in the country. The canals in Scotland provide access to water sports and activities and include the Caledonian Canal in the Highlands, the Crinan Canal in the heart of Argyll, the Forth & Clyde Canal in central Scotland, the Monkland Canal also in the central belt, and the Union Canal from Falkirk to Edinburgh.
The SHIRES (Counties) of Scotland are geographic subdivisions established in the Middle Ages. They ceased to be used for government purposes after 1975 under the Local Government Act 1973.. Today, local government is based upon council areas. Counties continue to be used for the purpose of lieutenancy and land registration purposes.
Scotland has many National SPORTS Teams. The country is widely promoted as the 'Home of Golf' and Golf in Scotland was first recorded in the 15th century and the modern game was first developed and established in the country. The British Golf Museum documents the history of golf from Medieval times to the present. The Old Course at St. Andrews dates back to before 1574. Polo is popular and there are several Polo Clubs. The button-down collar was originally called a ‘polo collar’. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and the country has many Geocaches. Horse Racing is a popular spectator sport. Fishing is a popular sport.
Scotland has many species of TREES. The Scots Pine is the National Tree. The Douglas Fir was named after Scottish botanist and collector David Douglas. The Hazel is the ideal tree for coppicing. Scotland has some famous trees. The Fortingall Yew is one of the oldest trees in the United Kingdom. Stevenson's Yew, a living link to Robert Louis Stevenson, stands in the private grounds of a house in Colinton, Edinburgh. The British Conifer Society promotes the use of conifers. It is the most common tree in Scotland and is cultivated as a cash crop.
Scotland has a variety of TRAILS. The is the first walking route to run the length of Scotland and takes two months to walk. The Great Trails are long distance trails and include hiking, cycling, and canoe routes. Each of the routes is waymarked with a hexagonal thistle symbol. A variety of mountain bike trails have been built as part of the Forestry Commission 7stanes project. The are many Horseback Riding Trails
Scotlant had all forms of TRANSPORTATION. In 2006, Transport Scotland was created as the national transport agency in the country. Scotland has an extensive railway network using cross country links across the country, and connections to England; local commuter links to the major cities. Scotland is covered by a large bus network throughout many towns, cities and rural areas. Scotland is made up of several hundred islands and water has always been an important transport route for passengers and freight. Scotland has an extensive road network throughout the country. Most of the License Plates in Scotland to not have a have blue band. A few of the license plates still have the EU blue band with "GB" letters, and some have different free-style blue bands, either with or without the EU stars. The Myreton Motor Museum near Aberlady has a motoring history collection which covers most of the 20th century.
"> There are currently 6 UNESCO World Heritage Sites sites in the country, with a further 2 undergoing a process of formal evaluation. St. Kilda archipelago uninhabited since 1930, bears the evidence of more than 2,000 years of human occupation. Edinburgh Old Town and New Towncontrast between the medieval Old Town and the planned Georgian New Town of Edinburgh. The Heart of Neolithic Orkney refers to a group of Neolithic monuments found on the Mainland, one of the islands of Orkney. To prevent demolition of the New Lanark village, a trust was founded and most of the buildings have been restored. The Antonine Wall was a turf fortification on stone foundations built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland. The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge over across the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland. In 2016, it was voted the greatest man-made wonder in Scotland.
Scotland has 15 UNIVERSITIES and 3 other institutions of higher education. St. Andrews, founded in 1418, is the oldest university in Scotland. St Salvator's College was added to St. Andrews in 1450. The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 and King's College, Aberdeen in 1495. There are many colleges in the country. The Gaelic College on the Isle of Skye promotes customs and traditions of immigrants from the Highlands of Scotland.
Scotland has several VOTING systems. The Single Transferable Vote was used for the first time in Scotland at the local government elections which took place in 2007. Instead of marking a cross, voters indicate their preferences on the ballot paper by ranking the candidates in order (first, second, third, etc.) and may vote in this way for as many or as few of the listed candidates as they wish. First Past the Post voting takes place in single-member parliamentary constituencies. To vote under FPTP, the voter simply puts a cross on the ballot paper next to one candidate. The candidate with the most votes wins. The Additional Member System elects representatives from geographic constituencies and others from party lists under a form of proportional representation.
The WEATHER in Scotland tends to be very changeable, but not normally extreme. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic and is warmer than areas on similar latitudes. The Northern islands and Highlands have a type of weather close to the climate of the Faroe Islands or Southern Norway. Winters in Scotland have an average low of around 32 °F with summer maximum temperatures averaging 59–63 °F. The coldest ever temperature in the UK, −17.0 °F, was recorded at Braemar in 1982 and also at Altnaharra in 1995. Rainfall totals vary widely across Scotland and the western highlands is one of the wettest places in Europe. Scotland is the windiest country in Europe due to eastward moving Atlantic depressions that bring strong winds and clouds continuously throughout the year.
Scotland has a variety of WILDLIFE including Badgers, the Mountain Hare, the Orkney Vole, the Red Deer, and the Scottish Wildcate an endangered species. Highland Wildlife Park specializes in Scottish Wildlife past and present. The Cairngorm Reindeer herd in Scotland is Britain's only herd of reindeer. Scotland has many species of bats..